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Warty Spindle (Euonimus verrucosa) and European Spindle (Euonimus europea), fam. Euonimaceae.
Inconspicuous during most of the year, but in autumn it is one of the most showy shrubs in the forest, due to peculiar fruits. They are poisonous, as well as all other parts of the plant; but this cannot stop the caterpillars to make many bushes almost bare in May.
It is possible to distinguish the two species by the young shoots (those of the warty spindle are covered with black speckles-warts), and by flowers - which are brown on the warty spindle, and white on the european.
The concoction of spindle leaves is used to treat liver, and as antiparasitic remedy (requires careful usage), and to moist the fungal lesions of nails and skin.
Blooming of warty spindle:
Blooming of european spindle:
Fruits (the species of spindle not distinguished):